Hey Dylan —
Sure thing —
Let’s first walk through the rules, then that Q —
The first rule, which I notated by putting K and G into the T diagram with the double arrow, tells us that of K and G, exactly 1 will be taken and exactly 1 will not be. Per this rule, if we find out that either K or G is taken, we know for sure that the other is not, and if we find out that K or G is not taken, we know for sure that the other one was.
Similarly, the second rule tells us that of H and L, exactly one will be taken and one will not, and we can make the same types of inferences.
The third rule tells us that if M is taken, then F must be as well. We can infer from this that if F is not taken, M will not be taken (the contrapositive).
The fourth rule tells us that if I is not taken, L won’t be taken. We can infer from this the contrapositive that if L is taken, I must have been taken.
Finally, the last rule tells us that if K is taken, F will not be. So, if F is taken, we know K must not have been.
So, I hope that’s clear and I hope it makes sense how the notations I used on page 187 represent those rules.
For Q # 2, we are asked to find an answer that, basically, allows us to know completely and exactly which dolls were taken and which ones were not. The T diagram work to the right of that q corresponds to each of the answer choices —
Walking through it together —
(A) allows us to put F and H into the “in” column.
Per the last rule, we know that F in -> K out.
Per the first rule, K out -> G in.
Per the second rule, H in -> L out.
The inference chain stops at that point, so, we don’t know whether M is in or out, and we don’t know whether I is in or out.
(B) allows us to put F in the in column and H into the out column.
If F is in, like last time, we know K is out, and thus G is in.
If H is out, per the second rule L is in. If L is in, per the fourth rule I is in.
Our chain ends there — we don’t know whether M is in or out and so (B) is not the correct answer.
(C) allows us to put M in and H out.
If M is in, per the third rule, F is in.
If F is in, just as before, we know that K is out and G is in.
And, per the second rule, if H is out, L is in. If L is in, per the fourth rule, I must be in.
So, answer choice (C) allows us to determine for all 7 elements whether they were taken or not.
I’ll stop there but the same process can help us see that (D) and (E) do not allow us to place all elements.
I hope that helps clear things up — if you have any follow-up or need anything else let me know —